Precautionary Measures

Resolution No. 37/16
PM 236-16 - Juana Mora Cedeño et al., Cuba

On July 3, 2016, the IACHR decided to request that precautionary measures be adopted for Juana Mora Cedeño and Mario José Delgado González, in Cuba. The request for precautionary measures alleges that Juana Mora Cedeño and Mario José Delgado González are human rights defenders, specifically defenders of the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, intersex, and queer (LGBTIQ) persons. After analyzing the allegations of fact and law, the Commission believes that the information presented demonstrates, prima facie, that Juana Mora Cedeño and Mario José Delgado González are in a serious and urgent situation, as their lives and personal integrity are at risk. Consequently, in accordance with Article 25 of its Rules of Procedure, the Commission asked Cuba to adopt the necessary measures so that Juana Mora Cedeño and Mario José Delgado González can freely carry out their activities as human rights defenders without in the process being subject to acts of violence and harassment that could jeopardize their right to personal integrity. It also asked the State to come to an agreement with the beneficiaries and their representatives on the measures to be adopted, and to report on the steps taken to investigate the allegations that led to the adoption of this precautionary measure, so as to avoid a recurrence.

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Resolution No. 1/14
PM 457-13 - Members of "Asociación para una Vida Mejor de Honduras" [Association for a better life in Honduras] (APUVIMEH), Honduras

On January 22, 2014, the Inter-American granted precautionary measures for the members of "Asociación para una Vida Mejor de Honduras" [Association for a better life in Honduras] (APUVIMEH). The request for precautionary measures indicates that, due to their activities of defense, protest and protection of the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and intersex persons (LGBTI) in Honduras, members of the organization would have become the object of killings, threats, harassment and violence against them, in retaliation for their activities. Specifically, the request alleges that members of the association carried out awareness raising and protection activities and ran a shelter house called "Casa Renacer" [House of Rebirth] where they took care of persons living with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Acts of aggression and assault against their members would have taken place in a context of violence against LGBTI persons, which would be the cause of approximately 115 killings in the last years, cases that would have ended in impunity. The IACHR asked that the State of Honduras take the necessary steps to ensure the life and physical integrity of the members of "Asociación para una Vida Mejor de Honduras" [Association for a better life in Honduras] (APUVIMEH), that it come to an agreement with the beneficiaries as to the measures to be taken, and that it inform the Commission about the steps taken to investigate the facts that gave rise to the adoption of precautionary measures.

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PM 155-13 - Caleb Orozco, Belize

On May 29, 2013, the IACHR granted precautionary measures for Caleb Orozco, in Belize. The request for precautionary measures indicates that Caleb Orozco is in a state of risk as a result of his work defending the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and intersex persons in Belize. Specifically, the petition alleges that Caleb Orozco has been subject to harassment and attacks at his home and on the streets, and he has received death threats via social media. It further alleges that even though he has filed complaints with the police, the authorities are not providing measures to protect his life and safety. The IACHR asked that the State of Belize take the necessary steps to ensure the life and physical integrity of Caleb Orozco, that it come to an agreement with the beneficiary as to the measures to be taken, and that it inform the Commission about the steps taken to investigate the facts that gave rise to the adoption of precautionary measures.


PM 153-11 - X and Z, Jamaica

On September 21, 2011, the IACHR granted precautionary measures to X and Z, in Jamaica. Their identities are being kept confidential at the request of the beneficiaries and/or their representatives. The request for precautionary measure states that both have suffered aggression, attacks, threats, and harassment on account of their sexual orientation. The Inter-American Commission asked the State of Jamaica to adopt the measures necessary to ensure their lives and persons, to agree on the steps to be taken with the beneficiaries and their representatives, and to report back on the actions carried out to investigate the facts that gave rise to the adoption of the precautionary measures.


PM 80-11 - Maurice Tomlinson, Jamaica

On March 21, 2011, the IACHR granted precautionary measures for Maurice Tomlinson, in Jamaica. The request for precautionary measures alleges that Maurice Tomlinson is facing a situation of risk due to his work as a defender of the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and intersex (LGBTI) persons in Jamaica. It indicates that he has been receiving death threats via e-mail, and that the State authorities have not adopted protection measures. The Inter-American Commission asked the State of Jamaica to adopt, in agreement with the beneficiary, the necessary measures to guarantee his life and physical integrity, and to inform the IACHR on the steps taken to investigate the facts that led to the adoption of these precautionary measures.


PM 222-09 - Agustín Humberto Estrada Negrete, Leticia Estrada Negrete, and Guadalupe Negrete Silva, Mexico

On April 7, 2010, the IACHR granted precautionary measures for Agustín Humberto Estrada Negrete, Leticia Estrada Negrete, and Guadalupe Negrete Silva, in Mexico. The request for precautionary measures alleges that Mr. Estrada Negrete, a member of the nongovernmental organization Agenda Lesbianas Gays Bisexuales Transexuales [Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transsexual Agenda] had been subject to death threats, acts of physical violence, and harassment since February 2009. It adds that these acts had been reported to the appropriate authorities, but that the necessary protection measures had not been adopted. It indicates that Mr. Estrada Negrete, his mother, and his sister had received new threats in January and February of 2010. The Inter-American Commission asked the State of Mexico to adopt the necessary measures to guarantee the life and physical integrity of Agustín Humberto Estrada Negrete, Leticia Estrada Negrete, and Guadalupe Negrete Silva; to plan and implement the protection measures with the participation of the beneficiaries and/or their representatives; and to inform the Commission about the measures adopted to respond to the factors that place the beneficiaries at risk.


PM 18-10 - Indyra Mendoza Aguilar et al., Honduras

On January 29, 2010, the IACHR granted precautionary measures for Indyra Mendoza Aguilar, Nohelia Flores Álvarez, Fátima Maritza Ulloa Becerra, and Ana Lourdes Ordóñez, in Honduras. Indyra Mendoza Aguilar is the director of Cattrachas, a nongovernmental organization that works for the rights of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and intersex (LBGTI) community. The request for precautionary measures alleges that on December 17, 2008, in Tegucigalpa, Nohelia Flores Álvarez, who belongs to Cattrachas, was forced to get into a vehicle of a member of the Preventive Police, who demanded sexual services at gunpoint. The request indicates that Nohelia Flores Álvarez refused, and the police officer threatened her life. It goes on to say that the next day, the policeman returned with two other men in a pickup truck and the three of them stabbed her a total of 17 times, in her throat, back, stomach, and arms. After she passed out, the men abandoned her in some bushes. In the hospital, Indyra Mendoza took photos that could serve as evidence in a trial and accompanied him in the process of filing the complaint, which is being investigated by Fátima Maritza Ulloa Becerra and Ana Lourdes Ordóñez, agents of the National Office of Criminal Investigation in Tegucigalpa. The request for precautionary measures alleges that the four beneficiaries are the object of threats and acts of harassment that place their lives and personal integrity at risk. The Commission requested that the State of Honduras adopt the necessary measures to guarantee the life and personal integrity of Indyra Mendoza Aguilar, Nohelia Flores Álvarez, Fátima Maritza Ulloa Becerra, and Ana Lourdes Ordóñez; that it come to an agreement with the beneficiaries and their representatives on the measures to be adopted; and that it inform the Commission about the actions taken with respect to the events that led to the adoption of the precautionary measures, so as to remove the factors placing the beneficiaries at risk.